Immigration

Requirements
Austria Non-EU citizens need residence and work permits in order to be entitled to work and reside in Austria. The immigration system is very complex and restrictive. A number of requirements have to be met (e.g. university degree, age limits, high income, language skills (German or English), under circumstances macro-economic benefit for Austria (in case of self-employment), etc).
The most important combined residence and work permit, the Red-White-Red Card (Rot-Weiß-Rot Karte) is granted for a duration of two years and can be prolonged. The conclusion of an integration agreement is precondition for the prolongation.

Besides, there are several other residence/work permits for a temporary stay in Austria (the respective appropriate permit needs to be assessed in every individual case).

After five years of continuous legal residence, application for a permanent residency is possible.
China Strict requirements apply under a revised regime set up in 2013. Expatriates working in China are classified into different levels, to encourage the immigration of talents. Foreigners can also apply for permanent residency (a Chinese 'green card') under strict preconditions.

For entry, a different visa will apply. Eg M-visa for business trips or certain short-term work (less than 90 days), Z-visa for work, S-visa for relatives of foreigners working in China to stay (no work), R-visa for foreign talent/ specialist.
Czech Republic Non-domestic individuals from third countries (i.e. non-EU countries, EEA and Switzerland) may be employed only if they hold a relevant work permit from the Labour Office and a residence permit for employment purposes, or if they hold an Employee Card or a Blue Card, which include both permits.

An Employee Card is usually issued for the duration of the employment relationship, but for a maximum of 2 years. A university degree or a higher education is not required. It is necessary to submit an employment contract (or an agreement on future contract) and, eventually, documents proving the professional competence for the relevant position.
Notwithstanding the scope of work, the foreigner's monthly remuneration must not be less than the monthly minimum wage (CZK 14,600), with weekly working hours of at least 15 hours. It can be applied for either abroad at a Czech Embassy or in the Czech Republic at the Ministry of Interior.
A Blue Card can be issued to non-domestic individuals from third countries who are highly qualified and looking for positions requiring a high qualification, which is considered to be a university degree or a completed higher education provided the study lasted at least 3 years. The application for the Blue Card can be administered by a Czech Embassy or the Ministry of Interior.
England & Wales
France A near complete overhaul of French immigration rules entered into effect on November 2, 2016, providing for a broad range of exemptions from work authorisation formalities for nationals of non-EU Member States according to the person’s function within the business (nationals of EU Member States continue to be exempt from all visa and work authorisation requirements).
Germany Non-EU citizens need a national visa before they enter into and start working in Germany. The application must be submitted to the German embassy in their home country.

There are various legal options for a national visa depending on the qualification, type of work and level of remuneration. In some cases, the consent of the German Federal Employment Agency (Bundesagentur für Arbeit) is necessary. Prerequisites for such consent are in particular: (i) working conditions comparable to German conditions, (ii) no detrimental effects on the German employment market, (iii) no European employee available (“priority test”).

No consent of the Federal Employment Agency is needed for example for a visa for the managing director of a GmbH or other managers who set up and operate a registered branch or for highly qualified persons with a certain level of income (“EU Blue Card”). After entering Germany, non-EU citizens have to apply for a residence and work permit at the immigration authority at their place of residence in Germany.
Hong Kong Investment as Entrepreneurs:
- no security objection and no known record of serious crime in respect of the applicant, both in Hong Kong and country of residence;
- good education background, normally a first degree in the relevant field, but in special circumstances, good technical qualifications, proven professional abilities and/or relevant experience and achievements supported by documentary evidence
may also be accepted; and
- in a position to make substantial contribution to the economy of HKSAR
- other considerations: business plan, business turnover, financial resources, investment sum, number of jobs created locally and introduction of new technology or skills
- an applicant who wishes to establish or join in a start-up business may also submit an application. The Immigration Department may consider the application favourably, if the start-up business concerned is supported by a government-backed programme.
Hungary As a member of the EU, Hungary provides special conditions for citizens coming from countries of the EU. The freedom to move to another EU country or to work without a work permit is a right for EU nationals.
Non-EU citizens need a national visa before they enter into and/or start working in Hungary (which shall be submitted to the Hungarian embassy in their home country). The exact requirements depend on whether the country of origin of the given citizen has a relevant agreement with Hungary or the EU.
A residence permit for the purpose of employment may be issued to third-country nationals:
- whose purpose of residence is to perform work for or under the direction and/or supervision of others, for remuneration, under contract for employment relationship; or
- who perform work as the owner or executive officer of a for-profit business association, co-operative society or some other legal entity, in addition to the work actually performed in that capacity.
The Department of Citizenship and Native registry of the Government Office of the Capital City Budapest is responsible for citizenship matters.
Ireland
Netherlands During the first phase of setting up a company, one can travel to the Netherlands for business meetings on a business visa for a maximum of 90 days in every consecutive period of 180 days.

After that, Non-EEA nationals require permission to work in the Netherlands. There are two options, the Highly Skilled Migrant permit (recognition as a sponsor required), or the Intra Corporate Transfer (ICT). In both cases the applicable wage criterion, in the first half year of 2020, is EUR 3,381 (<30 years old) / EUR 4,612 (30 years or older).
Poland Non-EEA-nationals need a work and residence permit/visa in order to reside and work in Poland. If the job position as described in the permit changes the employer is required to reapply for permission.
It is also possible to employ citizens of Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine on the basis of a statement on the intention to entrust work to a foreigner (which enables initial employment without a work permit for up to 6 months within the next 12 months).
After five years of continuous legal residence, application for a permanent residency is possible.
Singapore EntrePass for foreigners to start and operate a new business and is subject to strict requirements.
The EntrePass is valid for up to 1 year and is renewable.
Employment Pass (EP): for foreign professionals who have a job offer or work in a managerial, executive or specialised job subject to qualification requirements. The EP for first time applicants is valid up to 2 years. It is renewable up to 3 years.
S Pass: A company may apply for S Pass, in lieu of EP, for mid-skilled technical foreigner staff to work in Singapore subject to certain requirements. The number of S Pass holders a company can employ is capped at a sub-quota, or dependency ceiling, of 13% of the company’s total workforce for services sector and 20% for all other sectors. The S Pass is valid for up to 2 years, and is renewable.
Slovakia Non-EU citizens coming to Slovakia for work or business shall request a residence permit. The application has to mention a specific purpose for which the applicant comes to Slovakia (e.g. work, business). A separate work permit shall be requested only in certain circumstances. The residence permit for employment purposes can be issued for a maximum period of five years, whereas the residence permit for business purposes is limited to a maximum period of three years. Both types of residence permits could be renewed; in this regard, the same maximum periods apply (i.e. three and five years respectively).
United Arab Emirates Employees who are not UAE nationals need to be sponsored by their employer for the purpose of obtaining a UAE residency visa and work permit. GCC nationals do not require a visa, but a work permit still needs to be obtained by the employer.
The process includes security screening and health checks. The visa is typically issued for a 2 year period and renewal applications are subject to the approval of the local authorities and the criteria is updated from time to time.
Timing
Austria In general six to eight weeks (in most cases). six months decision period for authority.
China A lead time of 2-3 (better 4-6 months) is recommended.

Working in China without valid immigration titles can lead to serious sanctions, including police detention and being expelled from China.
Czech Republic For an Employee Card the future employer must notify a regional branch of the Labour Office that they have created a specific vacancy which they intend to fill with a foreign national. After 30 days of the position being registered with the Central Register of Vacancies and not having been filled with an employee from the EU/EEA and Switzerland, the employer will be allowed to employ a foreign national. The employer should conclude a Future Employment Agreement, through which he commits himself to concluding an Employment Agreement. The statutory deadline for processing an application is 60 days from the date of filing the application, in especially complicated cases 90 days. For a Blue Card the Ministry of Interior is to decide within 90 days from the date of application. If proceedings are interrupted, the period for issuing a decision does not start to run.
England & Wales Sole representative visa: two to four weeks processing time
Sponsor licence and subsequent Tier 2 visa application: three to six months from first UK hire/sole representative arrival
France Whereas prior to the change in regulations, applications were filed with the Labour Ministry in France (standard processing time 6 - 8 weeks), the processing time under the new consular procedure is considerably shorter for intra-group transfers and certain types of local work authorisations (notably for the European Blue Card).

However, several types of applications require that either a social security certificate of coverage (not just proof of application) or an undertaking to register with French social security be included in the application file. As obtaining such a certificate can take months, advance planning is advised.
Germany Visa with mandatory consent of the German Federal Employment Agency: up to three months (sometimes longer); Visa without consent of the German Federal Employment Agency: up to two months.
Hong Kong Normally takes 4 weeks to process a visa/entry permit application for investment.
Hungary As a main rule, when applying for a residence permit for the pursuit of gainful activity the competent immigration authority shall adopt a decision concerning the application within 21 days.
Ireland AWS permissions typically have a processing period of 4 weeks.
Employment permit applications have two distinct processing queues, which fluctuate depending on the time of year and the volume of applications received by the DBEI. For standard employers, the processing period typically ranges from between 12-16 weeks. Employers who are frequent users of the employment permits system may obtain Trusted Partner Initiative status with the DBEI, which, where granted, would allow their applications to avail of faster processing periods. Applications filed under the Trusted Partner Initiative are typically processed in 4-8 weeks.

Visa required nationals must apply for an entry visa before entering Ireland. The processing times for an entry visa may vary depending on the individual embassy where the individual applies, but in general entry visas will be processed within 8 weeks.
Netherlands Maximum decision period of 3 months.

In practice, recognition as a sponsor takes approximately 8 weeks, and every individual application after being a recognised sponsor takes 3 to 4 weeks.
Poland Depending on the type of procedure: 1 to 6 months. The authorities are heavily overloaded with the applications therefore employers should plan ahead when intending to hire Non-EEA Nationals.
Singapore EntrePass: the processing time for each EntrePass application will take at most 8 weeks for most cases.
EP: the application will take at most 3 weeks (online application) or 8 weeks (manual application) for most cases.
S Pass: application will take at most 3 weeks for most cases.
Slovakia As a general rule, a decision on the application for a residence permit shall be issued within 90 days. In several cases, for instance in case where the third-country national will perform work in a position classified as a "position in short supply" and his/her place of work will be in a district with low unemployment rate, a decision on the application for a residence permit shall be issued within a shorter period of 30 days.
United Arab Emirates The residency visa and work permit applications are filed together and need to be completed prior to the employee commencing his/her work. The processing time of the application varies depending on nationality and qualification level of the employee and can take 1-4 weeks.
Brexit
Austria Information unavailable or not applicable
China Information unavailable or not applicable
Czech Republic Information unavailable or not applicable
England & Wales As a result of the Brexit deal setting out the terms of the UK's departure from the EU, EEA/Swiss citizens and their family members living in the UK before 31 January 2020 will be able to secure their status in the UK by applying to the EU Settlement Scheme. The deadline for applications is 30 June 2021. Applications are submitted online and the outcome is also issued digitally (so there is no paper record). Successful applicants will receive either a temporary 'pre-settled status' if they have less than five years' continuous residence, or 'settled status' (permanent residency) for applicants with at least five years' continuous UK residence. Employers can continue to rely on existing right to work checks for their UK based EEA/Swiss workforce until the end of 2020, although these rules will change from 2021.

From January 2021, the UK will introduce a completely new immigration system (to be announced during 2020) that is likely to apply the same visa rules to European and non-European workers. So, for example, while business or tourist travel should be largely unaffected, European citizens relocating to the UK from 2021 will not be able to use the EU Settlement Scheme and will need to apply for an appropriate visa to be able to live, work or study in the UK. Depending on the new rules, those workers may not have a right to remain in the UK permanently. The main work visa routes for non-European workers (that will apply at least until the end of 2020) are summarised below.
France Information unavailable or not applicable
Germany Information unavailable or not applicable
Hong Kong Information unavailable or not applicable
Hungary Information unavailable or not applicable
Ireland Information unavailable or not applicable
Netherlands Information unavailable or not applicable
Poland Information unavailable or not applicable
Singapore Information unavailable or not applicable
Slovakia Information unavailable or not applicable
United Arab Emirates Information unavailable or not applicable
Visa Types
Austria Information unavailable or not applicable
China Information unavailable or not applicable
Czech Republic Information unavailable or not applicable
England & Wales Non-European citizens require permission to work in the UK. Unless an employee qualifies for a visa on a personal basis (e.g. through UK ancestry or as a spouse/civil partner/unmarried partner of a British or EEA national, or of a non-EEA national with their own immigration status) the UK entity will need to sponsor/support the employee’s work visa application.
France Information unavailable or not applicable
Germany Information unavailable or not applicable
Hong Kong Information unavailable or not applicable
Hungary Information unavailable or not applicable
Ireland Information unavailable or not applicable
Netherlands Information unavailable or not applicable
Poland Information unavailable or not applicable
Singapore Information unavailable or not applicable
Slovakia Information unavailable or not applicable
United Arab Emirates Information unavailable or not applicable